Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer depositions are effective ways for controlled deposition of one molecule thick layers. Alternate dipping expands this further allowing simultaneous deposition of two different components and also control over molecular orientation in the forming layer. The methods can be used for a large variety of materials ranging from nanoparticles and proteins to phospholipids, proteins and other biomolecules. End applications for the coatings vary from biochemical sensor array formation to creating anti-fogging and -reflective coatings, electro-optical devices and environmentally responsive coatings.
Dip coating of inorganic sols, so-called sol-gel synthesis, is a way of creating thin inorganic or polymeric coatings. In the sol-gel synthesis the deposition speed is highly important parameter that affects such things as layer thickness, density and porosity. Also other types of dipping where the deposition is not based on equilibrium interactions but there are kinetic factors involved a good control over the deposition is needed, and this is achieved by automated dippers. In multilayer deposition, multi-vessel dipping makes it possible to automate the deposition and make it easier reproduce. Dip coating can be applied to a large variety of materials from the inorganic sols and inorganic nanoparticles to self-assembling biochemical systems. This makes it possible to be used in a large variety of applications such as deposition electrical- and electro-optical layers, anti-reflective coatings, creating super hydrophobic surfaces and depositing biologically compatible coatings.